The electrophoresis chamber is the device where the sample is introduced for said process; and where the electromagnetic field that is formed in the electrophoresis process is created, said field takes place within a buffer solution in which the gel is submerged; the high concentration of electrolytes makes the transition of electric current possible. The principle of electrophoresis consists in the migration of the molecules through the gel generated by the electromagnetic field according to the molecular weight and size. This gel has pores that act like a strainer, causing small molecules to move faster than large molecules. In the chamber there are two poles that connect to the power source.
There are two types of electrophoresis chambers; the horizontal chamber where DNA and RNA are generally processed, this one has its positive pole at one end; and the vertical chamber where proteins and DNA are worked, which has the positive pole at its lower end. In both types of cameras, the negative pole can be distinguished from the positive pole, thanks to the difference in colors, since the positive pole is identified in red and the negative in black.
Electrophoresis Chamber Components
- It has two glass plates of the same thickness and width, but the length varies according to the camera model.
- Two spreaders, which are made of a flexible and resistant material; they determine the thickness of the gel.
- A comb, which is the same thickness as the spreaders and is also made of the same material, polyethylene or Teflon; It is used to mold the aisles where the samples will be placed.
- A support or base: it is a component whose function is to be assembled with the glasses with the spreaders with presses that hold the camera system together.
- The electrophoresis tank: it is the container that contains the run buffer.
- Power source: it is the component that provides electrical energy to the electrophoresis chamber and allows regulating the amperage, time and voltage according to the parameters considered necessary.
The importance of electrophoresis in many aspects is remarkable, but especially in the area of medicine. Since it is useful to compare samples of a healthy individual with those of a sick patient, allowing identifying nucleic acids of infectious agents; opening the way to the diagnosis of various diseases, and thus being able to treat the individual with the condition with the correct medication.
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